RSSMicrobial Hazards

LISTERIA

| February 2, 2013

What is Listeria? Listeria is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, containing a number of species including L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii and L. grayi. Although the first four of these have all been implicated in human infection nearly all cases of Listeria infection are caused by L. monocytogenes. At […]

Continue Reading

SALMONELLA

| February 2, 2013

What is Salmonella? Salmonella is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to a family called the Enterobacteriaceae, but it is not included in the group of bacteria referred to as coliforms. Salmonella is one of the principal causes of foodborne illness worldwide and is also an important pathogen of livestock, causing infections that can be transmitted […]

Continue Reading

NOROVIRUSES

| January 30, 2013

What are noroviruses? Noroviruses is the name given to a group of related single-stranded RNA viruses that have recently been classified in the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus. These highly infectious enteric viruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans (the infection is often called viral gastroenteritis). Although many cases are caused by person-to-person […]

Continue Reading

HEPATITIS A VIRUS

| January 30, 2013

What is the hepatitis A virus? The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and the genus Hepatovirus. It is an enteric virus and causes a liver disease in humans now known as hepatitis A (previously known by other names including infectious jaundice, viral hepatitis and infectious hepatitis). […]

Continue Reading

ESCHERICHIA COLI

| January 30, 2013

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, are Gram negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia species are also included in the group of genera referred to as the coliforms. Not all E. coli cause disease: the species is found as part of the normal, healthy human gut flora as well as in the environment.

Continue Reading

CAMPYLOBACTER

| January 30, 2013

What is Campylobacter? Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria containing at least 16 different species, some of which, especially C. jejuni, but also C. coli, C. lari, C. hyointestinalis and C. upsaliensis, may cause gastroenteritis in humans. Campylobacter is now the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many developed countries. Campylobacter is unique […]

Continue Reading

TRICHINELLA

| January 1, 2013

What is Trichinella? Trichinella is a genus of parasitic nematode worms that can cause a potentially serious infection (trichinellosis or trichinosis) in humans following consumption of infected meat. Trichinella was first described as a cause of disease in man as early as 1865. Up to ten species (or genotypes) have been described, at least seven […]

Continue Reading

GIARDIA

| January 1, 2013

What is Giardia? Giardia is a single-celled, flagellate, protozoan parasite belonging to the order Diplomonadida. The cells are unusual in having two nuclei. The species important in human illness is Giardia intestinalis (previously referred to as G. lamblia, or G. duodenalis). G. intestinalis is also found in a number of domestic and wild animals, including […]

Continue Reading

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

| January 1, 2013

What is Cryptosporidium? Cryptosporidium is a single-celled protozoan parasite belonging to the subclass Coccidia. Until recently, the only species thought to be important in human illness was referred to as Cryptosporidium parvum. But new studies have shown that several species can infect humans, including C. hominis, which is specific to humans, and C. parvum, which […]

Continue Reading