RSSFact Sheets

HEPATITIS A VIRUS

| January 30, 2013

What is the hepatitis A virus? The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and the genus Hepatovirus. It is an enteric virus and causes a liver disease in humans now known as hepatitis A (previously known by other names including infectious jaundice, viral hepatitis and infectious hepatitis). […]

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ESCHERICHIA COLI

| January 30, 2013

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, are Gram negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia species are also included in the group of genera referred to as the coliforms. Not all E. coli cause disease: the species is found as part of the normal, healthy human gut flora as well as in the environment.

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CAMPYLOBACTER

| January 30, 2013

What is Campylobacter? Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria containing at least 16 different species, some of which, especially C. jejuni, but also C. coli, C. lari, C. hyointestinalis and C. upsaliensis, may cause gastroenteritis in humans. Campylobacter is now the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many developed countries. Campylobacter is unique […]

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MELAMINE

| January 1, 2013

What is melamine? Melamine is a synthetic triazine compound and an organic base (C3N6H6, CAS number 108-78-1) with the chemical name 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine. It is an important industrial chemical and has been used as a component in various products since the late 1930s. The best known use of melamine is in combination with formaldehyde to produce […]

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BISPHENOL A

| January 1, 2013

What is bisphenol A? Bisphenol A (BPA) is a phenolic compound (C15H16O2, CAS No. 80-05-7), also referred to as 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. It was first synthesized over a hundred years ago and is an important industrial chemical used in manufacturing processes. BPA is a major component of rigid polycarbonate plastics and epoxy-resin coatings. Polycarbonate is commonly used […]

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ACRYLAMIDE

| January 1, 2013

What is acrylamide? Acrylamide (CH2=CH─CONH2) is a synthetic vinyl compound produced by the chemical industry mainly as a building block for polymers, particularly polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide is widely used in industrial applications, such as in the treatment of wastewater, in textile and paper processing and in mining and mineral production. Acrylamide is also present in cigarette […]

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TRICHINELLA

| January 1, 2013

What is Trichinella? Trichinella is a genus of parasitic nematode worms that can cause a potentially serious infection (trichinellosis or trichinosis) in humans following consumption of infected meat. Trichinella was first described as a cause of disease in man as early as 1865. Up to ten species (or genotypes) have been described, at least seven […]

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GIARDIA

| January 1, 2013

What is Giardia? Giardia is a single-celled, flagellate, protozoan parasite belonging to the order Diplomonadida. The cells are unusual in having two nuclei. The species important in human illness is Giardia intestinalis (previously referred to as G. lamblia, or G. duodenalis). G. intestinalis is also found in a number of domestic and wild animals, including […]

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CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

| January 1, 2013

What is Cryptosporidium? Cryptosporidium is a single-celled protozoan parasite belonging to the subclass Coccidia. Until recently, the only species thought to be important in human illness was referred to as Cryptosporidium parvum. But new studies have shown that several species can infect humans, including C. hominis, which is specific to humans, and C. parvum, which […]

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