What is Acrylamide?

Acrylamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO. It’s primarily used in the manufacturing of paper, dyes, and plastics. However, it also occurs naturally during the cooking process of certain foods that are rich in carbohydrates and low in protein.

The discovery that acrylamide is formed during the cooking of common foods led to increased scrutiny regarding its safety and potential health effects.

Chemical Structure and Properties

  • Chemical Formula: C3H5NO
  • Molecular Weight: 71.08 g/mol
  • Physical State: White odorless crystals
  • Solubility: Highly soluble in water, ethanol, and acetone
  • Melting Point: 84.5°C
  • Boiling Point: 125°C at 30 mm Hg

The chemical properties of acrylamide make it highly reactive, allowing it to form polymers known as polyacrylamides. These polymers are widely used in water treatment, soil conditioning, and various industrial applications.

Historical Context

Acrylamide was first synthesized in 1893, but its presence in food was not discovered until 2002 by Swedish scientists. This finding prompted worldwide concern and initiated extensive research into the effects of acrylamide on human health.


Acrylamide is found predominantly in plant-based foods that are rich in carbohydrates and low in protein. The compound is formed through a chemical reaction known as the Maillard reaction, in which amino acids and sugars react when exposed to high heat. This is a common occurrence during baking, frying, roasting, and even toasting processes.

Common Foods With Acrylamide

  • Potato Products: French fries, potato chips, and other fried or baked potato foods are major sources.
  • Cereals: Breakfast cereals, particularly those that are toasted.
  • Coffee: Both roasted coffee beans and ground coffee powder contain acrylamide.
  • Bread: Especially toasted bread and crisp breads.
  • Pastries: Biscuits, crackers, and cookies.
  • Snack Foods: Popcorn, pretzels, and other snacks that have been cooked at high temperatures.

Food Preparation and Acrylamide Levels

The level of acrylamide in foods can vary widely depending on the cooking time, temperature, and method. For example, boiling and steaming foods appear to produce much lower levels of acrylamide compared to frying or baking (FDA Statement on Acrylamide in Foods).

The Maillard Reaction

The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning that occurs between amino acids and reducing sugars during the cooking process. Acrylamide is one of the byproducts of this reaction, particularly when the food is cooked at temperatures above 120°C (248°F).

Potential Health Risks

Research on the health effects of acrylamide has produced varying results, but the compound is generally considered to pose a risk when consumed in large amounts over long periods. Both animal studies and some epidemiological research have suggested that acrylamide could have several adverse health effects.


One of the most studied and concerning aspects of acrylamide exposure is its potential carcinogenic effects. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide can increase the risk of various types of cancer when administered in high doses. However, the evidence for its carcinogenicity in humans remains inconclusive.


High levels of acrylamide exposure have been shown to harm the nervous system in both humans and animals. Occupational exposure to acrylamide has been linked to neurological symptoms like ataxia and numbness.

Reproductive Effects

Limited studies indicate that acrylamide might have adverse effects on fertility and prenatal development, although the data is not yet strong enough to draw firm conclusions.

Safety Thresholds

Determining a safe level of acrylamide intake is challenging due to the inconclusive nature of current research. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have not yet set a maximum safe intake level for acrylamide.

The Controversy

There is still much debate in the scientific community regarding the actual risk posed by acrylamide in food. Some experts argue that the levels of acrylamide found in food are too low to be of concern, especially when compared to the high doses used in animal studies.

Prevalence of Acrylamide-Related Illness

Determining the prevalence of illness specifically related to acrylamide exposure is challenging. Since the compound is just one of many potential environmental toxins, isolating its direct effects on human health is difficult. Furthermore, the chronic nature of potential acrylamide-related illnesses, like cancer, makes it hard to establish a clear cause-and-effect relationship.

Cancer Rates

While animal studies have suggested that acrylamide is a probable carcinogen, the same has not been definitively proven in humans. Epidemiological studies have not found a consistent link between dietary acrylamide exposure and an increased risk of most types of cancer.

Neurological Effects

Neurological conditions potentially related to acrylamide exposure—such as numbness, ataxia, and other symptoms—are more often associated with occupational settings rather than dietary sources. As such, the incidence of these conditions due to food consumption is considered to be low.

Other Chronic Illnesses

There is insufficient evidence to link acrylamide exposure from food to other chronic illnesses like heart disease, diabetes, or reproductive issues.

Reporting and Surveillance

Public health agencies have not instituted widespread surveillance specifically for acrylamide-related illnesses. Instead, monitoring generally falls under the broader category of food safety and chemical exposure surveillance programs.

Limitations of Current Data

It’s worth noting that while there are well-established methods for measuring acrylamide levels in food, the same cannot be said for measuring its levels in the human body, which complicates epidemiological research.

Natural Occurrence and Industrial Production

Natural Formation

Acrylamide is not naturally present in raw foods; rather, it forms during the cooking process. The compound is generated through the Maillard reaction, which occurs when foods rich in carbohydrates are cooked at high temperatures. This chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of acrylamide, among other compounds.

Industrial Production

In industrial settings, acrylamide is synthesized for various applications, such as water treatment, enhanced oil recovery, and the production of plastics, adhesives, and coatings. Here, the compound is generally produced through the hydration of acrylonitrile.

Food Manufacturing and Acrylamide

The process of food manufacturing can also contribute to acrylamide formation, especially in pre-packaged foods like chips, fries, and cookies. These foods are generally cooked at high temperatures during production, leading to the formation of acrylamide.

Culinary Practices

Cooking methods have a substantial impact on acrylamide formation. For instance, frying and baking at high temperatures and for extended periods tend to produce higher acrylamide levels. In contrast, boiling and steaming create negligible amounts of the compound.

Tobacco Smoke

Another common source of acrylamide is tobacco smoke. Acrylamide is one of the many harmful chemicals that are formed during the combustion of tobacco.

Environmental Stability

Degradation in Water

Acrylamide is highly soluble in water and can undergo hydrolysis, especially at acidic or alkaline pH levels. The rate of degradation increases with temperature and is facilitated by the presence of certain microbial communities.

Degradation in Soil

In soil, acrylamide tends to bind to organic matter and can also be degraded by soil microorganisms. However, the rate of degradation is influenced by soil type, moisture content, and other environmental factors.

Environmental Persistence

Acrylamide has a relatively low potential for bioaccumulation but can persist in the environment under certain conditions. It can leach into groundwater, posing a risk of contaminating drinking water sources.

Airborne Exposure

Acrylamide is not highly volatile; thus, airborne exposure is generally not a significant concern except in industrial settings where the compound is produced or used.

Climate and Seasonal Variation

Environmental conditions like temperature and humidity do not significantly affect acrylamide levels in food. However, the growing conditions of food crops, such as soil nutrient levels and weather patterns, could indirectly influence acrylamide formation during cooking.

Food Storage

The storage conditions of food also matter. For example, storing potatoes in a refrigerator may increase sugar content, which can lead to higher acrylamide levels when they are cooked.

Consumer-Level Strategies

Cooking Methods

Opting for cooking methods that use lower temperatures and shorter cooking times can reduce acrylamide formation. For example, boiling and steaming are generally better options than frying or baking at high temperatures.

Food Choices

Choosing foods that are less prone to acrylamide formation can also help. This includes selecting cereals that are less toasted and avoiding overcooked or burnt foods.

Food Storage

As mentioned earlier, storing potatoes in a refrigerator can increase sugar content, thus contributing to higher acrylamide levels when cooked. Keeping potatoes in a dark, cool place but not in the fridge can mitigate this risk, according to FDA.

Industrial-Level Strategies

Acrylamide Reducing Agents

Certain additives can be used to inhibit the Maillard reaction and thus reduce acrylamide levels. Asparaginase, an enzyme, is one such agent that can be applied to raw materials before cooking.

Cooking Process Optimization

Food manufacturers can adjust cooking times and temperatures to minimize acrylamide formation. Some industries have adopted practices that include pre-soaking potato slices before frying or baking.

Monitoring and Quality Control

Regular testing of food products for acrylamide levels can help manufacturers maintain quality and safety standards.

Regulatory Actions

Public Awareness

Governments and health organizations have taken steps to raise awareness about acrylamide risks and promote safer cooking practices.

Food Labeling

In some jurisdictions, foods that may contain high levels of acrylamide are required to have warning labels, although this is a topic of ongoing debate.

International Guidelines

World Health Organization (WHO)

While the WHO has not established a safe level of acrylamide intake, it has issued general advice for reducing exposure to the compound.

Codex Alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius Commission has developed guidelines for the reduction of acrylamide in food, although these are not binding.

United States

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

The FDA has not set a maximum allowable level of acrylamide in food but has provided guidance to the food industry on how to reduce acrylamide levels: FDA Guidance on Acrylamide.

Proposition 65

In California, under Proposition 65, businesses are required to provide warnings if their products expose consumers to chemicals like acrylamide that are known to cause cancer or reproductive harm.

European Union

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

The EFSA has conducted risk assessments and provided advice on reducing acrylamide levels in food but has not set maximum allowable levels: EFSA on Acrylamide.

EU Regulations

The EU has set benchmark levels for acrylamide in various types of food, and companies are required to take measures to keep acrylamide levels below these benchmarks.

Future Regulatory Trends

Given the ongoing research into the health effects of acrylamide, it is likely that regulatory frameworks will continue to evolve. This could potentially include stricter guidelines or even maximum allowable levels.