Bisphenol A

What is Bisphenol A?

Bisphenol A, commonly referred to as BPA, is an organic synthetic compound belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols. It has two hydroxyphenyl groups and is a key monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins.

Chemical Structure and Properties

BPA has the chemical formula (C15H16O2) and is characterized by its stability, resistance to heat, and insulating properties. Its structure comprises of two phenol functional groups connected by a propane bridge, giving it the stability required for its various applications.

Common Uses

  • Polycarbonate Plastics: Used in water bottles, sports equipment, and other consumer goods.
  • Epoxy Resins: Coatings for food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes.
  • Flame Retardants: Added to thermal paper used in sales receipts.
  • Dental Sealants and Composites: Employed in dentistry to provide coatings that protect tooth enamel.

Historical Perspective

The compound was first synthesized by Russian chemist Aleksandr Dianin in 1891, but its applications in plastics and resins began in the 1950s. Since then, its usage has skyrocketed due to its beneficial properties but has also raised health concerns.

What Foods Can Be Contaminated?

BPA is frequently used in the packaging of various foods, making the risk of contamination a matter of public health concern. Here, we discuss the different types of food packaging that often contain BPA and consequently, the types of foods most susceptible to contamination.

Common Sources of Contamination

Canned Foods

BPA is commonly found in the epoxy lining of metal cans used for canned foods such as soups, vegetables, and fruits. This lining serves to prevent corrosion and food spoilage but may leach BPA into the food itself (BPA in Canned Foods).

Plastic Containers

Polycarbonate plastics made from BPA are often used in food storage containers. When these containers are heated, there is a higher likelihood that BPA will migrate into the food stored inside (Leaching of BPA from Plastic Materials).

Baby Bottles and Sippy Cups

Prior to regulatory changes, many baby bottles and sippy cups were made of BPA-containing plastics. The risk was especially high when these bottles were heated, as is common during sterilization or when warming milk.

Water Bottles

Reusable water bottles, especially those made before more stringent regulations came into effect, often contain BPA. It is advisable to opt for bottles labeled as ‘BPA-free.’

Takeaway Containers

Takeaway and pre-packaged meals sometimes come in plastic containers that contain BPA, particularly in the lids or seals.

Indirect Sources

Meat and Dairy Products

Livestock are often exposed to BPA through their feed or water supply, resulting in the potential for BPA accumulation in meat and dairy products.


BPA can contaminate waterways and consequently enter the food chain, affecting aquatic life. This means that fish and other seafood may contain traces of BPA.

How Does it Affect Human Health?

The health effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) have been extensively studied, and the compound has been found to act as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. This means that BPA has the potential to interfere with the body’s hormonal systems, thereby affecting a wide range of physiological functions.

Reproductive Health

BPA mimics the hormone estrogen and can bind to estrogen receptors, disrupting normal hormone function. Studies have shown that it may lead to reproductive issues such as infertility, lowered sperm count, and abnormalities in reproductive organs.

Neurological Effects

Research indicates that exposure to BPA can affect brain function and behavior. Particularly concerning are the effects on developing brains, leading to concerns about its impact on children.

Metabolic Disorders

There is evidence to suggest that BPA can interfere with insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance. This has implications for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (BPA and Metabolic Diseases).

Immune System

Some studies have also indicated that BPA can modulate immune responses, making individuals more susceptible to allergies and infections.

Other Effects

  • Cancer: While not conclusively proven, some animal studies indicate that BPA exposure may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer.
  • Developmental Issues: In animal studies, prenatal exposure to BPA has been linked to developmental delays and behavioral issues.

Vulnerable Populations

  • Infants and Children: Due to their developing systems and higher rate of BPA absorption, infants and young children are considered to be at higher risk.
  • Pregnant Women: BPA can cross the placental barrier, thereby exposing the fetus to its effects.

How Common is Illness?

The prevalence of illness due to BPA exposure is a topic of ongoing research and debate. While BPA has been linked to several health concerns, including endocrine disruption, reproductive issues, and neurological effects, quantifying the incidence of illness directly caused by BPA is complex.

Detectable Levels in Humans

It’s worth noting that BPA is commonly detected in human biological samples such as urine, blood, and breast milk. A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found detectable levels of BPA in nearly all of urine samples of the people tested (2,517 participants aged six years and older) from a broad demographic of the U.S. population.

Correlative vs. Causative

While high prevalence rates of BPA in biological samples exist, this does not directly equate to a proportionally high incidence of illness. The challenge lies in differentiating between correlative and causative relationships between BPA exposure and health outcomes.

Studies on Illness Prevalence

  • Reproductive Issues: A number of human epidemiological studies have shown associations between BPA exposure and reproductive problems, but the causality remains unclear.
  • Endocrine Disorders: Similarly, there is an association between higher levels of BPA and endocrine disorders, but other factors can’t be ruled out.
  • Cardiovascular Problems: Some studies have shown an association between BPA exposure and higher risks of hypertension and heart disease.

Data Gaps

Many studies are based on animal models or in vitro analyses, which may not fully capture the complexity of human physiology. Furthermore, most studies look at the effects of high doses of BPA, whereas humans are generally exposed to low, chronic levels.

Where Does It Come From?

Understanding the sources of Bisphenol A (BPA) is crucial for both assessing exposure risks and developing strategies to minimize its environmental and health impacts. This section delves into the origins and common pathways of BPA into human environments.

Industrial Production

BPA is chiefly produced through the condensation of acetone with two equivalents of phenol, a reaction catalyzed by a strong acid. The global production of BPA is estimated to be around 5600 thousand tons in 2022, indicating its widespread use.

Consumer Products

Household Items

From electrical appliances to sports equipment, BPA is commonly found in a variety of household items made from polycarbonate plastics or epoxy resins.

Personal Care Products

Some cosmetics and toiletries, such as nail polish and shampoos, can contain BPA, usually as a stabilizer or preservative. Research finds personal care products heighten absorption of BPA.

Environmental Contamination


One of the main ways BPA enters the environment is through leaching from landfills, especially those containing large amounts of plastic waste.

Industrial Waste

Wastewater from industries that manufacture or use BPA can contribute to environmental contamination, especially if not properly treated.

Agricultural Runoff

While not a direct source, BPA can be part of the complex mixture of contaminants in agricultural runoff, especially if polycarbonate plastics are used in agricultural settings.

Food and Water Supply

BPA can contaminate food through packaging, as discussed earlier, and can also enter water supplies through leaching from water pipes that are lined with epoxy resins containing BPA.

How is it Affected by Environmental Factors?

Environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and light can influence the stability and leaching potential of Bisphenol A (BPA). Understanding these factors is crucial for assessing the risks of environmental contamination and human exposure.


Increased Leaching with Heat

Higher temperatures can accelerate the leaching of BPA from plastic materials. For instance, polycarbonate water bottles exposed to hot conditions have been found to leach significantly more BPA than when stored at room temperature.

Industrial Emissions

Temperature conditions in industrial settings can also influence the volatility of BPA, potentially leading to atmospheric emissions.

pH Levels

Acidic and Alkaline Conditions

The rate of BPA leaching has been observed to increase in both acidic and alkaline conditions. For example, acidic foods like tomato sauce can prompt greater leaching of BPA from can linings (Effect of pH on BPA Leaching).

Light Exposure


BPA can undergo photodegradation when exposed to UV light, breaking down into various byproducts. However, some of these degradation products may also have toxicological implications (Photodegradation of BPA).

Water Solubility

BPA is moderately water-soluble, which enables its migration into aquatic systems, especially following industrial discharges or leaching from waste.

Interaction with Other Chemicals

Certain chemicals can act as catalysts or inhibitors for the degradation of BPA, affecting its longevity and potential for bioaccumulation in environmental matrices.

How Can It Be Controlled?

Reducing exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) involves multiple strategies, spanning from industrial practices to consumer choices. This section offers guidelines and technologies aimed at controlling the prevalence and impact of BPA.

Industrial Measures

Better Waste Management

Proper disposal and treatment of industrial waste containing BPA can minimize environmental contamination. New waste treatment technologies are under development to break down BPA effectively.

Alternative Materials

Companies are increasingly exploring BPA-free alternatives for food packaging and other consumer products, such as using polyethylene instead of polycarbonate plastics.

Consumer-Level Actions

Opt for BPA-Free Products

Choose products labeled as ‘BPA-Free,’ especially when it comes to food storage containers, water bottles, and baby products.

Be Cautious with Heat

Avoid microwaving or exposing plastic containers to heat, as this can facilitate BPA leaching.

Be Informed

Reading labels and researching products can empower consumers to make safer choices regarding BPA exposure.

Regulatory Measures

Testing and Labeling

Mandatory testing and labeling for BPA content in consumer products can help people make informed decisions.

Ban or Limit Use

Some countries have already instituted bans or limits on BPA usage in certain products like baby bottles.

Technological Innovations

Advanced Filtration

New water filtration technologies are being developed to remove BPA from drinking water.


Research is underway to utilize microbial strains capable of breaking down BPA in contaminated sites.

Are There Rules and Regulations?

Given the growing concerns over the health impacts of Bisphenol A (BPA), various countries and international bodies have put rules and regulations in place to control its usage and exposure. These regulations differ across jurisdictions, reflecting the varying degrees of scientific consensus and public awareness.

United States

FDA Regulations

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that BPA is safe at the current levels occurring in foods. However, the FDA banned the use of BPA in baby bottles and sippy cups in 2012 (FDA on BPA).

State-Level Regulations

Some states, such as California, have more stringent regulations on BPA, requiring warning labels on products that contain BPA and could result in exposure.

European Union

EFSA Guidelines

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA on BPA) has set a temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI) of 4 µg/kg body weight per day, which is subject to ongoing review.

Product Bans

The EU has banned BPA in baby bottles and has also restricted its use in thermal paper.

Other Countries


Canada was the first country to declare BPA a toxic substance and has banned its use in baby bottles (Canada’s Ban on BPA in Baby Bottles).


Japan has replaced BPA in the lining of canned foods, contributing to a significant decline in dietary BPA exposure in the country.

Industry Guidelines

Some industries have proactively moved to limit or phase out BPA, particularly in food contact materials, even in the absence of regulations.

International Standards

Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) are also involved in assessing BPA risks and suggesting guidelines, although these are not binding regulations.