Escherichia coli

What is Escherichia coli?

Definition and Taxonomy

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly resides in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms, including humans. While most strains are harmless and even beneficial, some can pose significant health risks when ingested.

Types of E. coli

There are various types of E. coli strains, and they can be categorized as follows:

  1. Commensal Strains: Harmless strains that are part of the normal gut flora.
  2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC): Causes diarrhea and is commonly associated with traveler’s diarrhea.
  3. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC): A major cause of foodborne illness, often leading to severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea and kidney failure.

The focus of this guide is primarily on Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) as it is most relevant to food safety.

Molecular Characteristics

E. coli has several defining molecular characteristics, including the possession of various virulence factors like Shiga toxins, which are particularly produced by EHEC strains. These toxins disrupt protein synthesis in host cells, leading to cell death (CDC).

What Foods Can Be Contaminated?

Common Sources

Various food items are susceptible to E. coli contamination. Below are some of the most common:

  1. Raw or Undercooked Meat: Particularly ground beef, as the grinding process may introduce the bacteria into the meat.
  2. Fresh Produce: Leafy greens like lettuce and spinach can be contaminated through soil or handling.
  3. Raw Dairy Products: Unpasteurized milk or cheese can harbor E. coli bacteria.
  4. Water: Contaminated water used in food preparation can also be a source.

High-Risk Foods

Certain foods are more likely to be contaminated with E. coli due to their preparation or consumption habits:

  • Sprouts: Because they are grown in warm and humid conditions.
  • Cold Cuts: These are often eaten without further cooking, which would kill bacteria.

Food Processing and Contamination

The method of food processing can also contribute to contamination. For example, large industrial slaughterhouses can spread the bacteria from one infected animal to many meat products. Similarly, large-scale processing of fresh produce can spread contamination if just a single batch is infected (FDA).

How Does It Affect Human Health?

Immediate Symptoms

Upon ingesting food contaminated with harmful strains of E. coli, individuals may experience a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms, including:

  • Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever

These symptoms usually appear within 3–4 days after exposure but can occur as soon as 24 hours or as long as 10 days following infection (Mayo Clinic).

Long-Term Complications

In severe cases, E. coli infection can lead to more serious conditions:

  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A type of kidney failure, more common in children and elderly people. It’s a serious complication that requires immediate medical attention.
  • Death: Particularly in vulnerable populations, E. coli can be fatal.

At-Risk Populations

The severity of E. coli-related illnesses tends to be higher in certain demographic groups:

  • Children under 5
  • Elderly people
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems

Economic Impact

The healthcare costs and work productivity losses due to E. coli infections are substantial. According to a study, the estimated annual cost of E. coli illnesses in the United States is around $405 million.

How Common Is Illness?

Prevalence in the United States

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are an estimated 265,000 E. coli infections per year in the United States. Of these, around 3,600 require hospitalization, and approximately 30 are fatal.

Global Statistics

Globally, E. coli accounts for a significant proportion of foodborne illnesses. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that foodborne diseases, including those caused by E. coli, affect about 600 million people worldwide each year, resulting in 420,000 deaths (WHO).

Seasonal Variations

The incidence of E. coli infections can be seasonal. For example, a higher number of cases are often reported during the summer months, possibly due to increased consumption of risky foods like undercooked grilled meat and raw vegetables.

Geographic Variations

Certain geographic areas may have higher incidence rates due to local food handling and safety practices, water treatment facilities, and agricultural methods.

Where Does It Come From?

Animal Reservoirs

E. coli primarily resides in the intestines of warm-blooded animals such as cattle, goats, and sheep. These animals are often asymptomatic carriers, meaning they harbor the bacteria without showing any signs of illness.

Environmental Sources

Soil, water, and contaminated equipment can also act as reservoirs for E. coli. Runoff from farms can contaminate natural water sources, affecting both drinking water and recreational waters.

Human-to-Human Transmission

Although less common, E. coli can be spread through person-to-person contact. This typically occurs through the fecal-oral route, especially when proper hand hygiene is not observed (CDC).

Cross-Contamination in Food Preparation

Inadequate food handling practices can lead to cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. For example, using the same cutting board for both raw meat and vegetables can spread the bacteria.

Imported Foods

Foods imported from countries with less stringent food safety regulations can also be a source of E. coli contamination.

How Is It Affected by Environmental Factors?


E. coli bacteria are sensitive to temperature changes. While they thrive at body temperature (37°C or 98.6°F), they can be effectively killed at temperatures above 70°C (158°F). On the other end, refrigeration slows down their metabolic activity and growth but does not kill them.

pH Levels

The optimal pH range for E. coli growth is between 6.0 and 7.5. Extremely acidic or alkaline environments can inhibit growth or kill the bacteria.

Water Activity

E. coli requires a certain level of moisture for growth. Foods with low water activity, like dry grains, are less conducive to E. coli growth.

Oxygen Levels

While E. coli is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow with or without oxygen, its growth may be limited in low-oxygen environments.

Competition with Other Microbes

In environments where other microbial species are present, competition for nutrients can limit the growth of E. coli. Some food preservation methods leverage this by introducing ‘good’ bacteria to outcompete harmful ones.

Presence of Preservatives

Chemical preservatives such as sodium benzoate can inhibit the growth of E. coli. This is often used in processed foods to extend shelf life.

How Can It Be Controlled?

Personal Hygiene

Good personal hygiene is essential for controlling the spread of E. coli.

  • Hand Washing: Proper handwashing with soap and water, especially after handling raw food or using the restroom.

Food Preparation and Handling

Safe food handling can significantly reduce the risk of E. coli contamination:

  • Separation: Use separate cutting boards for raw and cooked foods to prevent cross-contamination.
  • Cooking: Cook meats to safe internal temperatures. For example, ground beef should be cooked to at least 160°F (71°C).
  • Chilling: Refrigerate foods promptly. Make sure your refrigerator is set at or below 40°F (4°C).

Food Choices

Being cautious with your food choices can also help:

  • Avoid Raw Milk: Opt for pasteurized milk and cheese.
  • Wash Produce: Rinse fruits and vegetables thoroughly under running water.

Water Treatment

  • Boiling: Boiling water for at least one minute can effectively kill E. coli bacteria.
  • Chemical Treatment: Chlorination and other chemical treatments can also make water safe for consumption.

Industrial Measures

In food manufacturing, several steps can control E. coli:

  • Heat Treatment: Pasteurization and sterilization.
  • High-Pressure Processing: Non-thermal method effective against E. coli.
  • Acidification: Using acidic ingredients to lower the pH of the food product.

Are There Rules and Regulations?

United States Regulations

In the United States, several agencies are responsible for monitoring and regulating food safety to control E. coli:

  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Regulates most of the U.S. food supply, including produce and dairy.
  • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, and processed egg products.


The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) aims to ensure the safety of the food supply chain through a focus on preventing contamination rather than just responding to it. The act includes rules specifically designed to minimize the risk of E. coli.

Global Regulations

Worldwide, various organizations and agencies work to establish food safety standards:

  • World Health Organization (WHO): Provides international guidelines and assists countries in establishing food safety norms.
  • Codex Alimentarius: A collection of internationally recognized food safety standards.

Microbiological Criteria

Many countries set microbiological criteria for foods, often specifying the allowable levels of E. coli as an indicator of overall hygiene conditions.

Testing and Recall Protocols

Routine testing is conducted on high-risk foods, and if E. coli is detected, the contaminated product is often subject to a recall. In the U.S., the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducts such tests and oversees recalls.

Consumer Education

Government agencies also work to educate consumers on safe food handling practices through public awareness campaigns.