What is Salmonella?

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in humans and animals. Belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, these bacteria are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow with or without oxygen. They are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, especially birds and mammals.

Scientific Classification

  • Kingdom: Bacteria
  • Phylum: Proteobacteria
  • Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  • Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  • Genus: Salmonella

Types of Salmonella

There are two species of Salmonella:

  1. Salmonella bongori
  2. Salmonella enterica

The latter is further divided into six subspecies and has over 2,500 serotypes, such as Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, which are the most common serotypes causing human illness.

Mechanism of Infection

Salmonella bacteria generally enter the host organism through the oral route and adhere to the intestinal epithelial cells. They invade the mucosal lining and survive in macrophages, thereby bypassing the host’s immune responses. Once inside the body, they produce toxins and other virulence factors that contribute to disease symptoms.

What Foods Can Be Contaminated?

Salmonella can contaminate a wide variety of foods, making it essential to understand the potential sources of exposure in our daily diet. The bacteria have a knack for survival in different environments, contributing to its ubiquity.

Meat and Poultry

  • Chicken: One of the most common sources of Salmonella. Contamination can occur during the slaughtering process.
  • Beef: Ground beef is especially prone to contamination.
  • Pork: Similar to beef, pork products can carry Salmonella bacteria.


  • Fish: Both fresh and frozen fish can harbor Salmonella.
  • Shellfish: Contaminated water can result in infected shellfish like oysters, mussels, and clams.

Dairy Products

  • Unpasteurized Milk: Raw milk lacks the heat treatment that kills bacteria.
  • Cheese: Soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk can contain Salmonella.

Fruits and Vegetables

  • Leafy Greens: Spinach, lettuce, and other leafy greens can get contaminated through soil or contaminated water.
  • Berries and Melons: Surface contamination can occur during harvesting or handling.

Processed Foods

  • Peanut Butter: Contamination can occur during the manufacturing process.
  • Eggs: Both the shell and inside of eggs can be contaminated.

Pet Foods

  • Dry Pet Food: Instances of contamination have been reported, affecting both pets and their owners.


  • Spices and Nuts: Although less common, items like spices and nuts can also carry Salmonella.


Cross-contamination in the kitchen, often due to improper food handling, can also lead to the spread of Salmonella to other foods that may not be cooked before consumption, like salads or fruits.

How Does It Affect Human Health?

Ingesting food or water contaminated with Salmonella can lead to salmonellosis, a bacterial infection that affects the intestinal tract and, in rare cases, can enter the bloodstream and infect other body sites.

Symptoms of Salmonellosis

The typical symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

These symptoms usually appear 6 to 48 hours after exposure and can last for up to a week.


While most people recover without treatment, severe cases can lead to complications such as:

  1. Dehydration: Prolonged diarrhea or vomiting can lead to severe dehydration requiring hospitalization.
  2. Reactive Arthritis: A form of inflammatory arthritis that can develop after a Salmonella infection.
  3. Bloodstream Infections: In rare cases, Salmonella can enter the bloodstream, leading to life-threatening complications like endocarditis or meningitis.

Vulnerable Populations

Certain groups are more susceptible to severe illness:

  • Infants and young children
  • Elderly individuals
  • Immunocompromised patients
  • Pregnant women

Long-term Effects

Though rare, long-term effects such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic arthritis may develop in some individuals post-recovery.


Antibiotics are generally not recommended for uncomplicated cases of salmonellosis. Rehydration and supportive care are the primary treatment modalities. However, antibiotics may be prescribed in severe or complicated cases.

How Common Is Illness?

Prevalence Rates

Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne illnesses worldwide. In the United States, it’s estimated that Salmonella infections sicken approximately 1.35 million people each year, resulting in around 26,500 hospitalizations and 420 deaths.

Global Perspective

Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) results in nearly 155,000 deaths annually. The burden of the disease varies by region, with developing countries often experiencing higher rates due to poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water.

High-Risk Outbreaks

Outbreaks frequently make headlines, often tied to a specific food item or brand. High-risk settings for outbreaks include:

  • Restaurants and fast-food chains
  • Hospitals and healthcare facilities
  • School cafeterias
  • Cruise ships and travel accommodations

Seasonal Variations

Salmonellosis cases often show seasonal variation, peaking during the summer months. This trend may be attributed to higher temperatures promoting bacterial growth, as well as increased outdoor activities like barbecues where food safety practices may not be stringently followed.


It’s crucial to note that the actual number of cases is likely higher than reported statistics, as mild cases that don’t require medical attention go unrecorded.

Where Does It Come From?

Animal Reservoirs

Salmonella is primarily a zoonotic pathogen, meaning it’s usually transmitted to humans from animals. The bacteria naturally reside in the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, including:

  • Poultry (chickens, turkeys)
  • Livestock (cows, pigs)
  • Pets (dogs, cats, reptiles)
  • Wild animals (birds, rodents)

Environmental Sources

In addition to animal hosts, Salmonella can survive in various environmental matrices:

  • Soil: Can harbor the bacteria from animal feces or contaminated water.
  • Water: Rivers, ponds, and other water bodies can become contaminated through sewage or animal waste.
  • Surfaces: Kitchen countertops, cutting boards, and utensils can become contaminated during food preparation.

Industrial and Agricultural Settings

Salmonella can be introduced at various stages of food production, including:

  • Slaughtering and processing plants
  • Dairy farms
  • Fisheries
  • Produce farms

Human Carriers

Humans who are infected with Salmonella, even if asymptomatic, can also serve as carriers and transmit the bacteria through poor hygiene practices.

Imported Foods

Global food trade also poses a risk, as foods contaminated in one country can easily be transported to others, facilitating the spread of Salmonella.

How Is It Affected by Environmental Factors?

Environmental factors play a crucial role in the survival, growth, and transmission of Salmonella. Understanding these factors can aid in effective control and prevention strategies.


  • Growth Range: Salmonella can grow in temperatures ranging from 7°C to 48°C, but they thrive in the “danger zone” of 16°C to 35°C.
  • Survival: The bacteria can survive freezing temperatures but are killed at high heat, typically at 60°C or above.


  • Water Activity: Salmonella requires a certain level of moisture, expressed as water activity (aw), for growth. It generally grows in foods with aw above 0.95.
  • Dehydration: Salmonella can survive but not multiply in low-moisture environments like dried fruits and grains.

pH Level

  • Acid Resistance: While optimal growth occurs in a neutral pH range (6.5–7.5), some strains can survive acidic conditions, making them a concern in foods like fermented sausages or pickles.


  • Anaerobic Conditions: As facultative anaerobes, Salmonella can grow in both aerobic (oxygen) and anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions, though they prefer the former.

Food Composition

  • Nutrient Content: High-protein foods like meat and eggs offer a favorable environment for Salmonella growth.

Other Environmental Factors

  • Salinity: High salt concentrations can inhibit growth.
  • Chemical Sanitizers: Commonly used sanitizers like chlorine and ethanol are effective at killing Salmonella.

How Can It Be Controlled?

Controlling Salmonella involves a multi-faceted approach that starts from farm to fork. Effective prevention and mitigation strategies can significantly reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

On the Farm

  1. Biosecurity Measures: Limiting access to farms and implementing strict hygiene protocols can reduce the risk of contamination.
  2. Animal Vaccination: Vaccines are available for some animals like poultry to reduce Salmonella colonization.
  3. Feed Control: Ensuring that animal feed is free from contamination.

During Processing

  1. Pasteurization: Heat treatment effectively kills Salmonella in liquids like milk and juices.
  2. Irradiation: This technique can reduce bacterial load in certain foods, though it’s not widely accepted due to consumer concerns.
  3. High-Pressure Processing: Emerging technology that shows promise in killing bacteria without heat.

In the Kitchen

  1. Proper Cooking: Cooking food to the recommended internal temperature is crucial. For example, poultry should be cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C).
  2. Avoid Cross-Contamination: Use separate cutting boards for raw and cooked foods.
  3. Handwashing: Always wash hands before and after handling food, especially raw meat.
  4. Food Storage: Store food at the correct temperatures to inhibit bacterial growth.

Public Health Measures

  1. Surveillance: Continuous monitoring of food products and illness reports to detect outbreaks.
  2. Education: Public awareness campaigns on food safety can go a long way in prevention.
  3. Recalls: Prompt removal of contaminated products from the market.

Chemical Methods

  1. Disinfectants: Use of chlorine or alcohol-based sanitizers for surface disinfection.
  2. Food Additives: Some antimicrobial agents can be added to food, but their use is regulated.

Are There Rules and Regulations?

To combat the prevalence of Salmonella in foods, various governmental bodies have put rules and regulations in place to ensure food safety throughout the production and distribution chain.

United States

  1. USDA-FSIS: The United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service oversees meat, poultry, and egg products. Standards include zero tolerance for Salmonella in ready-to-eat foods and allowable limits in raw products.
  2. FDA: Regulates other foods, including seafood, dairy, and produce. Implements the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) that mandates preventive controls.
  3. CDC: Engages in surveillance and outbreak response but does not set regulations.

European Union

  1. EFSA: The European Food Safety Authority sets scientific advice and guidelines, including those for Salmonella control in poultry.
  2. EU Legislation: Regulation (EC) No 2160/2003 aims to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in different animal species.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Codex Alimentarius: International food standards, including those for Salmonella, aiming for global harmonization.

Other Countries

Regulations can vary significantly, with some countries having stringent rules while others lack adequate regulatory frameworks.

Labeling Requirements

In some jurisdictions, products like raw meat must carry warning labels advising proper cooking to kill potential pathogens.

Enforcement and Penalties

  1. Inspections: Regular checks at various stages of food production.
  2. Recalls: Mandatory or voluntary removal of contaminated products.
  3. Legal Consequences: Companies may face fines, and in extreme cases, imprisonment for violations.

Sources for Further Readings

Questions and Answers | Salmonella

Salmonella and Food | CDC

Effects of Environment and Socioeconomics on Salmonella Infections

Salmonella infection – Mayo Clinic

Salmonella: Outbreaks, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Salmonella (non-typhoidal) – World Health Organization